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What’s the News: Archeologists have discovered thousands of stone tools in Texas that are over 15,000 years old.
The find is important because it is over 2,000 years older than the so-called Clovis culture, which had previously thought to be the first human culture in North America.
These sediment bodies were either overbank flood deposits that once formed a continuous floodplain deposit that was later disturbed by tree-throw or were isolated pockets of fine-grained sediments that accumulated in channels and depressions that existed on the sandy surface.
This unit represents the last time that fluvial deposition occurred at the site. The oldest unit, 3a, disconformably overlies the sands of unit 2b (Figs. Unit 3a is a brown silty sand with clear evidence of soil development as indicated by a 70 cm thick, brown soil horizon that has weak structure with faint clay films on the ped faces. This unit consists primarily of silty sand with occasional angular gravels that become more abundant toward the slope.
Overlying the fluvial sediments is unit 3 which was emplaced by colluvial processes as sediments were shed from the adjacent hillslopes onto the abandoned terrace tread (Figs. This unit occurs in two locations at the site and represents localized deposition on the terrace tread. In some places, the angular gravels close to the slope become 10 cm thick and grade downslope into a stone line (Fig. The upper 60 cm of unit 3b is pedogenically altered into a weak Bw horizon with a 15– 20 cm thick A or AP horizon. The contact between units 3b and 2b is sometimes difficult to clearly identify due to their similar textures. Above the Clovis horizon is a stratigraphically coherent cultural sequence that ranges from early, middle, and late Archaic to Woodland near the top (Goodyear, 2001). Wood and plant macrofossils were either recently introduced by plant bioturbation into older sediments, or were in situ lignified plant remains that were preserved in rare reducing environments that escaped oxidation by the vertically fluctuating water table.
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The Topper and Big Pine Tree sites are located in the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain along the Savannah River about 80 km from the coast (Fig. In the study area, the Savannah River is a meandering stream that is incised into Tertiary-age formations of unconsolidated clastic sediments (Stevenson, 1976; Leeth and Nagle, 1996; Fallaw and Price, 1992).